Just because I have to use a callback-oriented style on the client doesn't mean I want to use a callback-oriented style on the server. Now, before anyone gets all upset and tells me that I don't know the difference between async and a kitchen sink, let me explain :)
The client is necessarily an event-oriented place. If I don't know which button the user is going to press, it makes a lot of sense to use a different callback for each button. The server is different. If I'm waiting for the result of a database query before I can continue processing a request, it sure is convenient to just block and wait.
My key point is that it's important to separate what style you want to code with and what performance and scalability characteristics you want. You shouldn't necessarily pick a callback-oriented style just because you want the performance and scalability characteristics of asynchronous networking APIs.
My favorite two examples are gevent and Erlang, but Go is similar. When you code using gevent or Erlang, your code looks like synchronous, blocking code. However, below the covers, they use asynchronous networking APIs. Now, before anyone tells me that it's impossible, buggy, or that it'll never work, let me point out that these tricks have been in production for decades at Ericsson, Yahoo Groups, and IronPort Cisco.
Furthermore, I should point out that asynchronous networking APIs aren't a perfect fit for every problem. For instance, if your goal is to send 10 gigabytes of information to another server, it turns out that synchronous networking APIs will actually outperform asynchronous networking APIs. The reason asynchronous networking APIs are so popular is because they can handle a larger number of clients than synchronous networking APIs can and because they use less memory than a large number of threads, which each have to have their own stack. gevent and Erlang can handle a large number of clients, don't use up much memory, and don't require a real OS-level stack per client.
So what's my problem with the callback-oriented style? I find it a lot harder to read. I've coded projects in Twisted, Node.js, etc., and I prefer the gevent approach. You get roughly the same performance and scalability characteristics, but with much easier to read code. Of course, what's readable to me may not be readable to other people. I've met people who are perfectly happy using Twisted Web 1 and don't think that callback-oriented code poses any real challenge.
If you're interested in hearing more about my thoughts on async and concurrency, check out my other blog posts, which include a link to my Dr. Dobb's Journal article on Python concurrency.